Just you, the desert, the terrorists and your dueling opponent. (Image via Flickr) The traditional form of duel within the Bugis Makassar community was called Sitobo Lalang Lipa, in which duelists fought in a sarong. The challenger stands around him with a loose sarong and respectfully invites the other man to enter the sarong. The sarong itself is stretched around the two sizes. When the two men are inside, an agreement will be made to fight to the death and thereafter not to hold hereditary grudges, and neither side will be allowed to question the duel. When the two fighters agree, they attack each other in the confined space of a single sarong.  Unlike the more typical Kris duel of Javanese and Malay culture, the Bugis-Makassar community instead runs Badik, the local single-edged knife. Since it is almost impossible, even for the victor, to avoid injury, this type of duel was considered a sign of extraordinary bravery, masculinity and warrior mentality. Although the real Sitobo Lalang Lipa are no longer practiced, the staging of these duels is still practiced during cultural performances today.
Mutual struggle, a term commonly used in U.S. courts, occurs when two individuals intentionally and consensually engage in a loyal fight,  without injuring bystanders or damaging property. Oregon law expressly prohibits mutual struggle, according to section three of ORS 161.215: “A person shall not have the right to use physical force against another person if: Physical force is the product of a struggle by agreement that is not expressly authorized by law. There have been many cases where this concept has been successfully used to defend the accused.  In some cases, however, mutual struggle can lead to murder.  Duel culture survived in France, Italy and Latin America until the 20th century. After World War II, duels had become rare even in France, and those that still took place were treated as eccentricities in the press. Duels in France at that time were still taken seriously as a matter of honor, but not before death. They consisted of fighting with a sword, usually at a fixed distance, in order to draw blood from the opponent`s arm. In 1949, former Vichy civil servant Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour fought against teacher Roger Nordmann.  The last known duel in France took place in 1967, when Gaston Defferre insulted René Ribière in the French parliament and was later challenged to a duel with swords. René Ribière lost the duel after being injured twice.
 In Uruguay, in 1971, there was a pistol duel between Danilo Sena and Enrique Erro, in which neither combatant was injured.   The duel was based on a code of honour. Duels were not so much conducted to kill the opponent, but to obtain “satisfaction,” that is, to restore honor by showing a willingness to risk one`s life for it, and as such, the tradition of duel was originally reserved for male members of the nobility; In modern times, however, it extended to those of the upper class in general. Sometimes duels with pistols or swords were fought between women.   Around 1770, the duel underwent a number of important changes in England. First, unlike their counterparts in many continental nations, English duelists enthusiastically took the pistol, and sword duels decreased.  For this purpose, special duel pistols were made for the wealthiest nobles. The function of “second” has also been transformed into “seconds” or “friends” chosen by the aggrieved parties to conduct their dispute over honour. These friends tried to resolve a dispute under conditions acceptable to both parties, and if that failed, they organized and supervised the mechanisms of the meeting.  At the beginning of the New High German, the duel was called Kampf- or Kampffechten.
The German tradition of duel has its origins in the late Middle Ages, within the German fencing school. In the 15th century, there were duels between nobles in full armor. At the end of the 16th and 17th centuries, this tradition was gradually replaced by modern fencing with the rapier according to the Dardi school, while at the same time the practice of duel spread among the bourgeois classes, especially among students. Bolo knife duels were widespread in the northern and central Philippines, common on farmland where the machete-shaped bolo is often used as a household tool. A duel in which the international community took place on 14 September. It was organized in April 1920 by the Prescott Journal Miner, known as “the first Bolo duel in Manila since the American occupation.” It happened when Ángel Umali and Tranquilino Paglinawan met before dark on an open lot near the city center to settle a dispute. Paglinawan lost his left hand. As there was no law against bolo fighting, Umali was charged with a minor crime.  The traditional situation that led to a duel often occurred after a perceived offence, real or imagined, when a party demanded satisfaction from the aggressor. Charles I banned duels in Austria-Hungary in 1917. Germany (the various states of the Holy Roman Empire) has a history of laws against duels dating back to the late Middle Ages, with a large number of laws (duel mandate) dating back to the period after the Thirty Years` War.
Prussia banned duels in 1851, and the law was adopted by the Reich Penal Code of the German Empire after 1871.  Pope Leo XIII, in the encyclical Pastoralis officii (1891), called on the bishops of Germany and Austria-Hungary to impose sanctions on duelists.  In Nazi Germany, duel laws were tightened in 1937.  After World War II, West German authorities continued academic fencing in duels until 1951, when a court in Göttingen established the legal distinction between academic fencing and duel.  Bolo knife duels were widespread in the northern and central Philippines, common in farmland where the machete-like bolo is often used as a household tool. An internationally reported duel took place on April 14, 1920 by Prescott Journal Miner, known as “Bolo`s first duel in Manila since the American occupation”. It happened when Ángel Umali and Tranquilino Paglinawan met friends on an open lot near the city center before nightfall to settle a feud. Paglinawan lost his left hand. As there was no law against bolo fighting, Umali was charged with a minor crime.  There are many parts of the world that are still tribal laws and governed by tribal laws.
(e.g. in many parts of Central America, South America, Africa, Afghanistan, outside Kabul, etc.) Typically, challenges were written by one or more close friends who acted as “seconds.” The challenge, written in formal language, articulated real or imagined grievances and a demand for satisfaction. The disputed party then had the choice to accept or reject the challenge. The reasons for rejecting the challenge could be that it was frivolous or that the challenger was not generally recognized as a “gentleman” because the duel was limited to people of equal social status. However, caution has been advised before a challenge is rejected, as this could lead to accusations of cowardice or be perceived as an insult to the challenger`s seconds when he implies that he is acting on behalf of a person of lower social status. Participation in a duel could be honorably refused because of a large age difference between the parties and, to a lesser extent, in case of social inferiority of the challenger. However, this inferiority was to be immediately evident. As author Bertram Wyatt-Brown notes, “with social differences often difficult to measure,” most men could not escape for such reasons without a semblance of cowardice.  The police officer is supposed to act as a referee by stopping the fight when a clear winner has emerged. The police officer must also prevent passers-by from being injured and property damaged. This would make the fight illegal. In the early nineteenth century, American writer and activist John Neal took the duel as his first reform theme, attacking the institution in his first novel, Keep Cool (1817), calling it “the unconditional proof of masculinity” in an essay of the same year.
 Ironically, Neal was challenged to a duel by another Baltimore lawyer for insults published in his 1823 novel Randolph. He refused, mocking the challenge in his next novel, Errata, published the same year.  During the German occupation, the Luxembourg Palace was the headquarters of the Luftwaffe.